题目：19世纪美国对中国的鸦片贸易 (责任编辑：王 勇)
The American Opium Trade with China in the Nineteenth Century
内容简介：In the nineteenth century the world opium trade was dominated by the British East India Company, which exported opium from its colony of India to China. The trade was lucrative, and Americans joined it. Because the East India Company jealously guarded its Indian opium monopoly, Americans focused on and came to dominate the opium trade of the Ottoman Empire. The American opium trade in China was only about one-tenth the size of the British trade, but Americans were the largest exporters of Middle East opium. Several American opium traders at the port city of Canton were Thomas Perkins, William Russell, Robert Forbes, and Warren Delano, Jr., the grandfather of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Their main Chinese trading partner was Wu Ping-chen, known among Americans as Howqua. Not coincidentally, these traders, American and Chinese, were among the world’s first millionaires. American traders used the proceeds of opium trading to introduce Chinese art and culture to the United States. Many American missionaries in China as well as U.S. citizens actually condemned the opium trade. They realized the distribution of opium, an addictive narcotic, undermined their efforts to teach Chinese people about the humanitarianism of Christianity. Many Americans opposed the opium trade was because it was a means to criticize the British Empire, which Americans saw as their imperial rival. Until the 1870s opium was a foreign commodity to Americans, but beginning then its dangers began to manifest within the United States. Many Americans associated the growth of opium “smoking dens” with Chinese immigrants. This association provoked several anti-Asian laws in the United States beginning in the 1880s. The U.S. government made the production and consumption of opium a federal crime in 1906. Thus study of Americans’ opium trade in the nineteenth century allows us to see the first relations between the United States and China, built not on military power but commerce (albeit involving an exploitative commodity) and cultural exchange.